Why are you so stupid?
This use of epiplexis, a kind of rhetorical
question, does not seek the information it ostensibly asks for, but is
likely an attempt to provoke anger in the listener.
Figures used to provoke emotional response (pathos)
A comandment, promise, or exhortation intended to move one's consent
The expression of the inability of expression almost always emotional
in its nature.
An exclamation proceeding from deep indignation.
A statement designed to inhibit someone from doing something.
Breaking off suddenly in the middle of speaking, usually to portray
being overcome with emotion.
Turning one's speech from one audience to another, or addressing oneself
to an abstraction or the absentalmost always as a way of increasing
appeal through emotion.
Threatening/prophecying payback for ill doing.
The repetition of a word or words in adjacent phrases or clauses, either
to amplify the thought or to express emotion.
The vehement expression of desire put in terms of "for someone's sake"
or "for God's sake."
Vivid description, especially of the consequences of an act, that stirs
up its hearers. (See enargia, below)
Repetition of a word with one or more between, usually to express deep
An emotional exclamation.
Enargia, or vivid description, can be inherently moving, especially
when depicting things graphic in nature.
Energia, the vigor with which one expresses oneself, can obviously be
Amending a first thought by altering it to make it stronger or more
Persistent repetition of the same plea in much the same words, a direct
method for underscoring the pathetic appeal.
Asking questions in order to chide, to express grief, or to inveigh.
A figure in which one turns things over to one's hearers (often pathetically).
To excite an audience, especially out of a stupor or boredom.
Stirring others by one's own vehement feeling.
- inter se pugnantia
Using direct address to reprove someone before an audience openly.
Expressing complaint and seeking help.
A prophecy of evil. As the term's name connotes, this can be "ominous"
Expressing joy for blessings obtained or an evil avoided.
A speech or figure designed to arouse emotion.
A threat against someone, or something.
The use of several synonyms together to amplify or explain a given subject
or term. A kind of repetition that adds force.